The CDC published in 2022 its updated Clinical Practice Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Pain. This guideline provides recommendations for prescribers providing pain care, including those prescribing opioids, for outpatients ages 18 years and older. It updates the 2016 guideline and includes recommendations for manage acute, subacute and chronic pain. The recommendations do not apply to pain related to sickle cell disease or cancer or to patients receiving palliative or end-of-life care.
The CDC reports that primary care providers in rural counties have a higher percentage of patients prescribed an opioid compared to urban counties, and drug poisoning death rates were higher in rural counties for commonly prescribed, natural and semi-synthetic opioids and psychostimulants.
Studies show women perceive pain differently than men, women are more likely to have conditions that lead to chronic pain, and opioid receptors respond differently to prescription opioids based on gender.